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By Alex Salkever With the specter of the World Trade Center and Pentagon disasters looming large in the minds of lawmakers, the cry to ban U.S. exports of sophisticated encryption software has risen anew. Encryption, or cryptography (crypto for short), is the science of devising codes that cloak messages in secret language. It involves using complex algorithms to mix characters of a message with other characters or values in a seemingly nonsensical way. The result is gibberish that even the biggest supercomputers struggle to decode.
In 1998, the U.S. government removed a ban on the production and export for sale of advanced cryptographic software and equipment. That raised the ire of law-enforcement officials and national-security hawks. But the hubbub quickly died down thanks to the glowing aura of the boom economy. Now, it appears that encryption exports may be in jeopardy again as the U.S. scours the globe for Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda cohorts.
UNWIELDY CONTROLS. In Britain, members of Parliament are calling for legislation that would control cryptographic products and create a government-controlled "key" registry. That registry would store digital keys to all cryptographic products sold commercially in the country, allowing law-enforcement officials to use the keys and render cloaked messages readable. Meanwhile, in the U.S., Senator Judd Gregg (R-N.H.) on Sept. 13 called for further review of what crypto exports should be banned and what key registries are needed for domestic law enforcement.
These calls, while understandable, are misdirected. In the past, restrictions on crypto have had the perverse effect of hurting U.S. businesses and moving the research centers for this subject overseas to Europe. Reinstating those restrictions could hurt a wide variety of U.S. companies from encryption specialists RSA Security (RSAS
) and NTRU Cryptosystems to digital-certificate companies such as VeriSign (VRSN
) and Entrust (ENTU
Furthermore, a ban on crypto products -- or more control over digital keys -- likely won't have the desired affect of restricting terrorists' access to the technology. Dozens of open-source crypto programs circulate freely on the Internet, alongside their commercial brethren. Putting this cat back in the digital bag might prove very difficult.
THE BACK DOOR. A better way to deal with surveillance of terrorists using crypto products is for law-enforcement officials to become more skillful at hacking. Any type of crypto product must be built as a piece of software. While the encoding algorithms that power crypto products might seem invincible, any piece of software has flaws inherent in its construction by human beings. "They will probably not find fault in the algorithm itself. They will find a fault in how its being used," explains Westin Nichols, chief information security officer at managed-security outfit Telenisus and a former technical director of network security at the NSA.
For example, basic security flaws in the Windows operating system could easily be leveraged to eavesdrop -- even on crypto-protected communications. Why? Because crypto programs ride on top of the most basic software kernels of a system. So any hacks that can compromise the underlying kernel can be leveraged upwards to snoop with relative impunity.
The recent CodeRed and Nimda computer attacks illustrated how root access to computers is often remotely accessible with a minimum amount of effort. While terrorists may have more time to patch their systems, many of their partners and linking organizations may not. Without a doubt, there's an easy way into these networks, even if they use encryption. "No matter how strong the crypto is, there's always another way in," says William Whyte, a noted cryptographer and director of crypto research at NTRU.
HUMAN WEAKNESS. Then there's what hackers call the "social" hack. That means tricking your way into access to secure systems. It can range from sending spoofed e-mails asking for passwords to phone calls from a mystery IT consultant requesting information about a company's systems. Guessing passwords is another favorite pastime of hackers.
All these efforts target a simple fact -- human beings are almost always the weakest link in any attempt to protect data or communications. Most people use passwords that are easy to remember rather than secure. Furthermore, people use the same password or variations of it for most of their accounts.
Everyone, even terrorists, lets their guard down in some situation that might provide critical human intelligence to guide a cyber attack. Something as simple as discovering the configuration of IT systems at banks suspected of harboring terrorist accounts might give the government a clue as how to break into that system.
TRICKY STRATEGIES, PROPER OVERSIGHT. I don't mean to be flippant about all this. I realize that professional hacking by a government begs some very tricky legal issues, such as when the government should be allowed to break into people's computer systems. But there's no reason why, with a court order that's the legal equivalent of a digital search warrant, such procedures couldn't be authorized in the U.S., even internationally, if the process is properly overseen. While that might blur some legal lines, the U.S. has been using intelligence operatives to snoop in other countries for years. So there's clearly a precedent for it in the cyber realm, too.
These are not always the most savory tactics and choices. Hacking through systems to circumvent encryption clearly risks allowing the government, be it U.S. or any other, too much power and depletes citizens' already scant privacy. That said, it's a far easier and more manageable course of action than attempting to ban the export of encryption software or build a key-registry system that virtually no one wants, save the most stalwart security hawks. The U.S. and Britain would be better served trying a new approach than returning to an old tactic that hasn't worked. Salkever covers computer security issues twice a month in his Security Net column, only on BW Online