Bloomberg News

Ebola Spurs Nigeria Surveillance, Regional Border Limits

August 17, 2014

Clinic Overrun in Liberia

A man carries out a girl from an Ebola isolation center as a mob overruns the facility in the West Point slum, on August 16, 2014 in Monrovia, Liberia. Photographer: John Moore/Getty Images

Residents of Liberia’s capital attacked a clinic treating suspected Ebola patients, complicating already strained efforts to contain the spread of the deadly virus.

The patients began to “mingle” with the crowd and some didn’t return, Frank Sainworla, who runs Catholic radio station Veritas in Monrovia, said by phone. The Associated Press reported that bloodied mattresses were stolen by armed men at the center in the West Point neighborhood.

“The community residents in West Point went to the isolation center to get mattresses placed at the newly established Ebola Isolation center,” he said.

Countries in the region are strengthening security at borders, and more airlines are discontinuing flights to some affected countries, further isolating them. The actions come after a top official from Doctors Without Borders said it will take months to curb the outbreak, while the World Health Organization said its running tally of Ebola cases and deaths underestimates the numbers medical workers are reporting.

Nigeria, with 12 confirmed Ebola cases so far, said yesterday it has placed almost 200 people under surveillance for the deadly disease, trying to limit an outbreak that’s killed more than 1,100 people in West Africa.

Nigeria is the fourth country where Ebola has been reported, following its spread in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. At least 2,100 people have been infected throughout West Africa, the WHO reported.

Upper Hand

“We are not talking weeks; we’re talking about months to get an upper hand on the epidemic,” Joanne Liu, international president of Doctors Without Borders, told reporters last week in Geneva.

Liu, whose organization has almost 700 health workers in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, said a turnaround may take six months and called for more help by global health groups. She said others need to “step up to the plate” in aiding the four countries battling the virus.

“It needs to happen now if we want to contain this epidemic,” Liu said. More health-care workers are needed to follow up on cases and educate the public about what the disease and the outbreak entails.’’

‘Vastly Underestimate’

The U.K. yesterday contributed $8.5 million to the disease fight, according to e-mailed statement from the U.K. Foreign Office. Japan extended a $1.5 million emergency grant to be used by the WHO and other global health agencies.

The WHO said in a statement that their staff members “at the outbreak sites see evidence that the number of reported cases and deaths vastly underestimate the magnitude of the outbreak.”

The World Food Programme also said last week that 1 million people need food aid in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, the countries hardest hit by the epidemic. Food, including cooked meals, is being transported into the countries by truck, Steve Taravella, a spokesman, said in a telephone interview.

Guinea is among the countries strengthening security at its borders, aiming to control the flow of people from Liberia and Sierra Leone. The country will deploy 42 added military doctors and 42 civilian doctors at crossings, Remy Lamah, Guinea’s minister of health, said yesterday in the capital of Conakry.

Kenya Air Lines Co. will suspend flights to Liberia and Sierra Leone effective Aug. 19, the airline said yesterday in an e-mail, citing the risk assessments by Kenya’s ministry of health and the WHO. The airline said it will continue flying to Nigeria and Ghana.

Air Routes

Africa’s air routes are increasingly at risk as the Ebola virus prompts local carriers to avoid the worst-affected areas. Korean Air Lines Co. last week signaled a broader threat to the continent’s travel links as it halted services thousands of miles from the outbreak’s epicenter.

Airlines from Gambia, Togo and Nigeria have already stopped flying to the Ebola-hit states, while Korean Air will end operations to Kenya on Aug. 20.

“When you have long incubation periods it’s possible that someone would be exposed but not yet exhibiting symptoms and could travel unknowingly -- aviation is a potential vector for this,” said Robert Mann, president of aviation consultant R.W. Mann & Co. Asian customers are especially conscious of personal security, which “causes a drop in willingness travel.”

Scaling Up

Ebola, which can cause bleeding from the eyes, ears and nose, has killed as many as 90 percent of those infected in the past. In this outbreak more than 40 percent have survived. Researchers are speeding up their efforts to test experimental medicines and vaccines for the virus.

The WHO said it’s “coordinating a massive scaling up of the international response, marshaling support from individual countries, disease control agencies, agencies within the United Nations system, and others.”

The WHO on Aug. 8 declared the Ebola outbreak an international public health emergency. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has added 50 public-health workers to its staff in the region.

There is no approved cure for Ebola. Normal treatment involves keeping patients hydrated, replacing lost blood and using antibiotics to fight infections. The hope is that a patient’s immune system will eventually fight off the virus’s aggressive attack.

Experimental Drug

Two American health workers infected with the virus in Liberia have received an experimental medicine from Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc. and appear to be improving. Mapp’s antibody is one of several experimental treatments in development. A Nigerian citizen is being tested for Ebola in Spain after showing symptoms of the disease, the Ministry of Health said today. Blood test results are expected today or tomorrow.

Three infected Liberian health workers received the Mapp drug yesterday at a hospital near Monrovia, the capital, according to Tolbert G. Nyenswah, an assistant minister of health and social welfare, the New York Times reported today. Nyenswah didn’t say whether any of the three were doctors.

The Canadian government has said it will donate as many as 1,000 doses of a vaccine that could help protect medical workers as they fight Ebola in West Africa, though it may take at least a month as officials weigh whether it is safe.

Unrealistic Expectations

The WHO warned yesterday in a statement that the public had “unrealistic expectations” of the experimental treatments.

“While many efforts are under way to accelerate production, supplies will not be augmented for several months to come,” the agency said. “Even then, supplies will be too small to have a significant impact on the outbreak.”

To contact the reporters on this story: Caroline Chen in New York at cchen509@bloomberg.net; Kristen Hallam in London at khallam@bloomberg.net; Elise Zoker in Johannesburg at ezoker@bloomberg.net

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Reg Gale at rgale5@bloomberg.net Andres R. Martinez, Paul Gordon


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