The former head of the federal pension insurer inappropriately interfered in a contracting process that ultimately led to the hiring of Goldman Sachs (GS), JPMorgan Chase (JPM), and Blackrock to manage billions of dollars in assets and earn $100 million or more in fees, a federal watchdog concludes in a draft report distributed on May 14. BusinessWeek has learned that a criminal investigation into some of the allegations raised in the report has been requested by a group of senators and will begin shortly.
The report calls into question the process used to award contracts for managing some $2.5 billion in assets at Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp. The report's author, PBGC Inspector General Rebecca Anne Batts, who will also handle the criminal probe, recommends that the Cabinet secretaries who oversee the agency consider whether the contracts should be revoked. The PBGC's acting director said the agency would decide whether to revoke the contracts.
Among other things, the report says Charles E.F. Millard, who stepped down on Jan. 20, improperly contacted some of the firms potentially bidding on the contracts and later sought and received job-hunting help from an unnamed executive of Goldman Sachs after the company had been awarded a contract to manage up to $700 million. The report also says Millard was warned not to engage in much or all of the activity it calls into question. The inspector general's inquiry was already under way before Millard's departure. Millard said earlier this month that he has been doing some consulting work while exploring different job opportunities.
All of this comes at a challenging time for the PBGC, which could become the steward of one of the large pension plans at bankrupt or struggling companies in the auto industry and elsewhere. Now, more scrutiny is sure to come. Representative George Miller (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Labor Committee, which released the draft report, announced that the committee will launch an investigation of its own, calling the questions over Millard's conduct "very serious." Herb Kohl (D-Wis.), chairman of the U.S. Senate's Special Committee on Aging, also announced a hearing, to be held on May 20, looking into the allegations and into broader concerns about the PBGC. Senator Charles Grassley (R-Iowa) said in a statement that he and three fellow senators—Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.), Max Baucus (D-Mont.), and Michael Enzi (R-Wyo.)—also support further investigation. A spokeswoman for Kohl's office said Millard had received a subpoena to appear at the hearing.
In a brief e-mailed statement, Millard's attorney, Stanley Brand, said Millard's efforts to improve the PBGC's financial health were "carried out in a transparent and ethical manner."
The report says it didn't find evidence of criminal activity by bidders for the contracts, though the scope of the inquiry so far has remained internal. Spokeswomen for Goldman, JPMorgan, and Blackrock declined to comment.
A controversial switch from bonds to riskier assetsThe PBGC's board—Labor Secretary Hilda Solis, Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, and Commerce Secretary Gary Locke—has asked the agency's interim director to determine whether the contracts in question should be reevaluated.
The PBGC insures defined-benefit pension plans—traditional pensions that pay retirees a set monthly amount for life—and as of Sept. 30 managed nearly $50 billion in assets for plans that have been abandoned by the companies that originally sponsored them, usually after bankruptcy or insolvency.
At the heart of the inspector general's inquiry is a controversial decision made in early 2008 to gradually shift billions of dollars from bonds, which make up the bulk of the agency's assets, into stocks, real estate, and private equity investments. The goal, supporters say, was to improve returns and therefore the odds that the agency's gap between its assets and its potential obligations—about $11 billion, currently—would close, avoiding the need for a government bailout at some point down the road. Critics called the move hasty and ill-informed and said it would subject the agency's assets to too much additional investment risk.
Although the shift was approved in February 2008, a PBGC spokesman said no assets have been moved yet under the "strategic partnership" contracts to farm out asset management.
"We will work with our board to decide whether these contracts should be terminated and whether strategic partnerships fit into the board's investment approach going forward," said Vince Snowbarger, the PBGC's acting director, in a written statement. Future PBGC directors won't be allowed to be directly involved in procurement, he added.
In addition to the contract Goldman Sachs was awarded to manage up to $700 billion, Blackrock and JPMorgan each received contracts to manage up to $900 million in real estate and private equity assets, the report said.
"government sachs"Goldman's supporting role in the inspector general's report once again highlights that company's often cozy connections with the halls of government power. Those ties have earned the firm the nickname "Government Sachs," from the fact that Henry Paulson, President George W. Bush's last Treasury secretary, once ran Goldman, to the close ties between Goldman and AIG (AIG), and the bank's receipt of $12.9 billion of AIG's bailout money. Meanwhile, President Barack Obama received nearly $1 million in campaign contributions from Goldman employees, second only to University of California workers.
The PBGC report documents 29 emails between Millard's PBGC account and a Goldman pal, including the extensive assistance by the banker in Millard's job search. That assistance ranged from making introductions to passing along Millard's résumé, biography, and press clippings to CEOs at other financial firms.
Millard called the allegation of impropriety "ridiculous" and said he had a "deep personal relationship" with the Goldman executive. In a written response from Millard that is attached to the report, the former director insists: "I always acted in the interests of the agency."
In a letter Millard sent Batts, dated Apr. 28, Millard defends his position on the PBGC panels as an attempt to get things done at an agency that in the past hadn't always moved quickly. And some of his defenders imply there may be a political motivation to Batt's report since Millard is an active Republican. Batts notes that her inquiry began long before the November 2008 election and says she has seen no evidence of partisanship.
The investigation, begun on Sept. 17, 2008, as a simple review of the PBGC's implementation of its new investment policy. But within a few weeks it had broadened into a look at Millard's behavior after Batts was approached by an unnamed whistleblower with specific allegations. By Oct. 31, when the PBGC was to issue the contracts with Goldman, JPMorgan, and Blackrock, Batts suggested holding off, but Millard wouldn't, Batts said in a telephone interview.
unprecedented dual role for PBGC chiefAccording to the inspector general's report, a whistleblower accused Millard of contacting executives at firms bidding for PBGC business "in order to enhance his future employment prospects." The inspector general's subsequent investigation found 29 emails documenting the extensive efforts the unnamed Goldman executive made on Millard's behalf. The draft report notes that some PBGC employees involved in the investment portfolio "believed that the former Director made some decisions based on his relationship with certain industry members and not on the merits themselves."
Because Millard didn't record details of his calls, visits, and emails, "we could not determine whether [his] communications with Wall Street firms had any impact on his decisions," the report says. However, Millard's actions "made PBGC vulnerable to allegations of bias, improper influence, or abuse of position."
Many of the questions around Millard's conduct stem from his "unprecedented" role on the committee that evaluated bidders and awarded contracts; ordinarily, PBGC directors haven't served in that capacity. Batts says she told Millard that serving on the committee was "unwise," but he continued when told there was nothing expressly illegal about it.
Members of the committee aren't supposed to contact bidders during a "blackout" period, when they are being evaluated—something Millard was told several times, the report says. Yet Millard made phone calls to 8 of the 16 firms bidding on the contracts, including all four finalists and the three firms that were ultimately chosen, Batts wrote in the report. At least nine calls were made from or received at Millard's phone to Goldman Sachs during the three-month blackout period, most to an executive directly involved in the bidding process, Batts wrote. Another six calls were made to or from a key Blackrock official, and at least 10 calls to or from a managing director at JPMorgan.
The report says Millard's explanations for the contacts changed over time, and it suggests that several of those explanations didn't hold up. Batts called the contacts a violation of PBGC policy and federal acquisition regulations. Millard's "improper actions raise serious questions about the integrity of the process by which the winners…were selected," Batts wrote.